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What is a Tooth Cyst?

A dental cyst is an abnormal fluid-filled sac or capsule that develops inside the teeth or surrounding tissues. Dental cysts are usually caused by inflammation of the tooth roots or tissues around the tooth. Inflammation can be caused by infection, trauma or other dental treatment such as root canal treatment or extraction of a tooth.

What is a Tooth Cyst?

Treatment may vary depending on the type, size, location and general health of the patient. Treatment options may include surgical removal of the cyst, dental treatment or root canal treatment. Dental cyst treatment is performed by a dentist or oral, dental and maxillofacial surgeon and can often be successfully treated with early detection and treatment. Therefore, it is important to contact a specialist whenever you experience any oral or dental problems.

What are the Symptoms of Tooth Cysts?

A dental cyst is usually asymptomatic unless it is of a specific type, or it may present with mild symptoms. Symptoms of a dental cyst can vary depending on the size of the cyst, its location and its effect on neighboring tissues. Therefore, it is important to consult a dentist or dental surgeon if you suspect a tooth cyst or are experiencing any oral problems. Symptoms of a tooth cyst can be listed as follows:

  • Pain or discomfort,
  • Swelling or protrusion around the tooth,
  • Jammed teeth,
  • Gum problems,
  • Dental loss,
  • Dental abscess,
  • Swelling or pain in the face.

The symptoms of a tooth cyst can be similar to other oral and dental problems. Therefore, a definitive diagnosis is necessary, with an examination by a dentist or dental surgeon and, if necessary, X-rays or other imaging tests. Treatment may vary depending on the type, size and location of the diagnosed cyst, so it is important to pay attention to expert advice.

Causes of Tooth Cyst

The causes of tooth cysts are usually related to the tooth roots or surrounding tissues. Common causes of tooth cysts:

Infections: Tooth cysts often occur as a result of infections in the teeth. When a tooth decays or is injured, these infections can spread to the tooth root or surrounding tissues. Cysts can develop as a result of inflammation.

Root Root Canal Treatment Problems: If there are any problems during or after root canal treatment (for example, incomplete cleaning of infection or leakage of filling material), the risk of developing a tooth cyst may increase.

Complications after tooth extraction: Incomplete removal or fracture of the tooth root during or after tooth extraction can lead to cyst formation.

Dentigerous Cysts (Follicular Cysts): Dentigerous cysts can occur when teeth do not develop normally. Such cysts are formed as a result of abnormalities in the development of the tooth.

Genetic Factors: Some dental cysts can be associated with family history due to genetic factors.

Trauma: Trauma or blows to the teeth can contribute to the development of dental cysts.

Periodontal Disease: Periodontal disease, or gum disease, can lead to inflammation of the tissues around the teeth, which can increase the risk of tooth cysts forming.

Dental Development Problems in Children: Some dental cysts can occur in children when teeth do not develop normally or when they prevent teeth from erupting.

How to Diagnose a Tooth Cyst

Tooth cysts may not cause symptoms when they are usually small in size and can therefore be difficult to detect. Such small tooth cysts are often not recognized until a dental x-ray is taken. More advanced diagnostic methods such as computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging can help confirm such cysts. Advanced imaging methods are especially important to avoid confusion with other types of cysts, such as periapical cysts or aneurysmal bone cysts, and to make the correct diagnosis. If the cysts are very large or have irregular borders, they can be quickly diagnosed by an experienced dentist through a physical examination.

What are the Treatment Methods for Tooth Cysts?

The size of the cyst is one of the most critical factors when formulating the appropriate treatment plan after the diagnosis of a dental cyst. Small-sized dental cysts can be surgically removed, usually together with the affected tooth. This surgical procedure is performed by oral and maxillofacial surgeons and is highly effective and safe.

However, in some cases a treatment procedure called marsupialization may be preferred. The marsupialization technique starts by surgically cutting the cyst and then does not close the remaining part of the cyst with stitches; instead, it leaves the cyst open and allows it to drain easily if fluid builds up. One of the goals of this approach is to prevent the cyst from developing again. The Marsupialization technique is particularly preferred when a single evacuation procedure is insufficient or when complete removal of the surrounding tissue and tooth is not necessary. It also allows the tooth affected by the dental cyst to develop and be exposed without problems.

Tooth cyst treatment may also include pharmacologic (medication) therapy, nutritional, speech and swallowing supportive therapies to improve quality of life and facilitate function, and reconstruction operations to reconstruct the jawbone and surrounding tissues.

An important point to remember is that dental cyst treatment requires regular follow-up and control. This approach reduces the risk of cyst reoccurrence and offers the opportunity for early detection and treatment. Dental cysts can cause growth and progressive complications if neglected without a treatment plan. Therefore, the use of antibiotics does not eliminate dental cysts and cannot correct damage to the affected surrounding tissue.

Creation Date:09 October 2023